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How can programme monitoring help my HIV prevention programme(s)/project(s)?

The routine collection and analysis of HIV data during implementation allows you to track and monitor progress towards a programme's outputs and to fine-tune a programme when necessary. It enables you to report progress against milestones and targets. It tells you what's working and what's not working and thus needs to be improved and modified. This data can be used to evaluate programme effectiveness. Sources of such strategic information include:

  • Surveys, surveillance, and research to define the epidemiological, behavioural situation and context, the populations, geographic locations, and risk settings most in need of HIV services
  • Policy and programme documents that describe and analyse the national political context and response and the response capacity of communities, the private and public sectors
  • Analysis of existing research and programmatic data
  • Stakeholder consultations such as meetings with people living with HIV and with members of marginalized groups
  • Monitoring and evaluation reports from existing programmes and services

At the global level donors, multilateral organizations, and the UN system are working closely with national governments to harmonize required monitoring indicators. United Nations General Assembly Special Session (UNGASS) is a Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS adopted by the UN General Assembly Twenty-sixth Special Session on Wednesday 27th June 2001, New York. To monitor the Declaration for the first round of reporting in 2003, the UNAIDS Secretariat collaborated with cosponsors and other partners to develop a set of Core Indicators commonly referred to as the “UNGASS Indicators.” After each subsequent reporting round these indicators have been reviewed and, if necessary, updated. UNAIDS recommends use of the UNGASS indicators as the basis for any national monitoring and evaluation system. The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria presents indicators consistent with UNGASS in its Monitoring and Evaluation Toolkit
and Addendum.

In addition, national-level indicators help individual countries to track programme implementation progress and to evaluate the effectiveness of the national response. Programme/project-level information systems routinely collect and record data on these indicators. The tracking and reporting of progress should be inclusive and transparent, engaging stakeholders in a participatory process.

Strategic information needs vary by epidemiological scenario.

  • Gather information that defines the most-at-risk populations, risk settings, the response capacity and the resource needs in the public and private sector.
  • Include budgets and plans for second generation surveillance.
  • Monitor HIV programme coverage, disaggregated by population subgroup, sex, age, marital status and geographic area; and adjust programmes to meet demand and improve performance.
  • All actions outlined in low-level scenarios.
  • Conduct periodic national assessment of the national response.
  • Analyse the context and drivers of the predominant risk behaviors.
  • Conduct additional research on sexual networking patterns to better understand the potential HIV transmission flow from most-at-risk populations to the general population.
  • All actions outlined in low-level and concentrated scenarios.
  • Gather and use strategic information to understand the contexts and drivers of predominant risk behaviours and to guide investment and action towards achieving objectives.
  • Gather and analyse data from additional sources to estimate the incidence from key groups in order to refresh prevention plans.
  • All actions outlined in low-level, concentrated and generalized scenarios.
  • Conduct additional behavioural and ethnographic studies (e.g. young people, girls, married men) to map and define sexual networks, communication networks and opportunities to promote social change.